Before you travel join IAMAT a low-cost non-profit medical help organisation. Carry your membership ID card with you. If you need Medical help show your ID and use IAMAT recommended hospitals and doctors. Read the health tips in the IAMAT website in advance.

Consult your Physician in advance. They will recommend if advance shots or other precautions are needed.

On the IAMAT website “Select your travel destinations, and get an instant, personalized guide to our medical services and comprehensive travel health information for the countries you are visiting. Print a copy or save securely for future online access. The Travel Health Planner is also accessible on your mobile!”

Personal Plumbing Management Tips for Diarrhea:

1. Bactrim (proper names Co-trimoxazole or Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
Kills a lot of common GI bugs.
Ask you Physician. You may want to get a prescription before you travel.

2. Loperamide (aka brand name Imodium) Think temporary chemical cork…

3. Gastrolite Fizzy Tablets or powder you add in a glass of water to replace lost electrolytes. Many sports drinks have electrolyte replacements.

For more travel tips read Gulliver the Economist‘s Travel blog here.

Need help when you travel? Simple walk into a hotel, smile and ask the Concierge anything you want. They have heard all the questions tourists have asked before, and will have all answers to help you! Have a good trip!

LED lumen maintenance curves decline due to LED use and thermal conditions.

All lamp lumen performance declines due to use. Lumen maintenance curve decline is also affected by the number of times a lamp is turned on & off, the thermal environment of the lamp and luminaire, and lamp ballast/driver electronics.

New research shows LED lumen performance declines due to heat without LEDs being turned on. During testing LEDs were turned on only for short duration lumen measurement data collection.

This has large implications for exterior LED lighting where high ambient temperatures are present, as is typically found inside luminaires exposed to direct sunlight during daytimes when luminaires are not on.

The higher the ambient temperature, the faster LED lumen performance declines. Not all high brightness LEDs perform the same way.  Different manufacturer’s LEDs exhibit different rates of decline.  Variation in lumen performance decline must be due to differences in LED manufacture technique and material.

I am interested to review Electron microscopic time-elapse images & data collected at different points along the lumen maintenance curve. No doubt, there is something new to discover to improve manufacturing technique & fabrication for more robust LEDs.

“The World Largest Timepiece” lighting system is on Bahnhofstrasse in Zurich.
It was a winner of a design competition organized two years ago.
The lighting system consists of 275 tubes, each 7 meters long; they float
suspended in the middle of a shopping street. A custom-made ‘Xmas Generator’
software system controls the dynamic lighting effects; this changes the
lighting depending on visitor frequency and holiday events. At the beginning
of the Advent season, light, resembling drifting clouds is used, for New Year’s Eve,
the light mimics a fireworks display. More information can be found on
the two web sites below.

Can a new research light-up profits and public interest?
By Fred Oberkircher, IALD, IESNA, LC

In today’s corporate world of “next quarter” mentality, it’s easy to see how it could happen. The pressure to bring product to the marketplace and to maximize profits for the benefit of shareholders has made it difficult to justify the cost of research. However, this article is not intended to be a call for a rededication to the basics of lighting research, Instead, it will focus on one specific area where I believe research can simultaneously serve the dual interests of both the public and profit.

New Light for Your Life: For basically 100 years, light has been defined as radiant energy that affects the human visual system. And, why not? All the best research in the world detailed the mechanisms by which rods and cones – the only photoreceptors – received and passed along signals to the brain. The entire lighting industry reaffirmed this research by producing ever more sophisticated products to optimize the process by which light was introduced to those photoreceptors. All the questions concerning vision having been answered, the remaining issues were increasingly devoted to maximizing the profit potential of lighting products.

But over approximately the last four years a quiet revolution has been underway. It started as a series of clarifications concerning the spectral characteristics of light used in SAD (Seasonally Affective Disorder) treatments, was expanded by groundbreaking research first published in Science in 2002, and became the topic of an international conference in 2004. This research suggested that light not only had new and broad based physiological implications, in addition, this process began through a photoreceptor that was neither a rod nor a cone. Light was still radiant energy, however it now had an additional pathway with a different spectral distribution, and it affected, not the visual system, but the human hormonal system. The revolution was a new field of light – non-visual effects.

A Short Explanation: Several years ago, the discovery that SAD was a psychological disorder that could be treated with light seemed amazing – light as cure. However, as more research was conducted it was found that blue light was more effective than white light. Why? The first indication of an answer was when, in 2002, researchers discovered that mice without rods or cones could still maintain a day/night (circadian) cycle. Following a burst of research energy, it was further found that the eye of mammals – including humans – had a third photoreceptor that sent its signals, not to the vision part of the brain, but to the hormonal center, the pineal gland. And finally, this new receptor was most sensitive to – you guessed it – blue light!

Why Haven’t I Heard?: Reaction to this groundbreaking research? No major headlines, and no major industry commitment. Why? There are three answers. The first, is that the research was very scientifically detailed – conditions such as dilated pupils and extended staring at a specific light source do not typically occur outside of the laboratory. The second is that environmental conditions have historically been difficult to quantify – to what extent is the level of a specific hormone in an environmental setting due to the spectral distribution of the light and what to other circumstances? The third is that while the photometry for visual light has been almost 100 years in development, there is currently no photometry for non-visual effects – meaning that there is no consensus on how to measure the affects that may be taking place. Clearly, a gap exists between the current state of the research and the human health implications of non-visual effects.

Call for Action: While the immediate path may not be clear, I strongly believe that we must invest in knowledge and research now! Consider that sleep disruption is the number one issue for the elderly. Consider that sleeping aids are the number one prescription medication sold today. Then consider that both of these are issues for which circadian rhythm/light – a non-visual effect – have significant impact. And that’s just for starters. Research has suggested that:

• a significant percentage of the working population of northern cities may be falling asleep at work during those long dark winter days – not enough of the light necessary for that new photoreceptor.

• third shift female workers are more likely to develop certain kinds of cancer – the wrong kind of light.

• the sleep irregularities common with certain forms of dementia may be, in part due to the lighting – light at the wrong time.

Its time for the lighting industry to come together with the researchers and create a clear plan of action that includes research, measurement, and application. I believe the results will have major positive effects for both the public and profit.

The U.S. interstate highway system will turn 50 this year. President Dwight Eisenhower signed the law creating the system and the Highway Trust Fund to finance it in 1956. So when the Transportation Research Board held its 85th annual meeting in Washington, D.C., recently, a panel of academic and private sector experts took stock of the half-century gone by and gazed down the road ahead for our car-centric nation. Like the Internet, the interstate has affected the American economy in way undreamt of at the time. Read more at:

Looking Down The Highway, Andrew T. Gillies, 02.08.06

21,000 of the 43,000 annual deaths on America’s highways are caused by roadway departure and intersection related incidents. Building on work previously done in the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative, the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration initiative is working towards the deployment of advanced vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-infrastructure communications that could keep vehicles from leaving the road and enhance their safe movement through intersections. Read more at:

U.S. Department of Transportation: Intelligent Transportation Systems
Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII)

Consider the development of the Interstate and development challenges facing the Internet.